Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Welcome to the Referencing LibGuide. This guide will:
- give you information on why referencing is an important academic skill
- advise which referencing style your tutors expect you to use
- provide links to tutorials and further help and support.
Citation, Reference, Bibliography?
Citation: this is where you refer to the source in the text of your document. This is a shortened way of citing the source, with full details given in the reference list.
Reference: the full bibliographic details of the source you have cited. In the Harvard style this is given as a reference list at the end of a document.
Bibliography: this includes any sources you have read as part of your research, whether you have cited them directly or not. When a bibliography is requested, this is also a list at the end of a document.
Library & Learning Services Team on Twitter
Referencing & Plagiarism
Accurate referencing is essential in all academic work, and it:
- allows you to acknowledge your sources
- gives academic credibility to your work
- shows you have carried out thorough research
- allows your reader to find the sources you have read
- demonstrates your knowledge of a subject area
- prevents accusations of plagiarism.
What is plagiarism?
What should I reference?
You should always reference a source when:
- using a direct quote
- summarising a theory
- discussing someone else's opinion
- using case studies
- quoting statistics or visual data
Use this flowchart to help you decide if you need to reference (click on the image for a larger view):
Harvard Referencing Quiz
Put your referencing skills to the test with this great short quiz from Newcastle University Library.